Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area Carbon Inventory
Emissions increased in all regions of the GTHA
Overall trend reflects little progress since 2015
Emissions climb toward pre-pandemic levels, risking 2030 targets
Increase of 4.5% to 51.2 million tonnes from 2020 to 2021
51.2 Mt total emissions
Increased by 4.5% in 2021
Annual 8% decrease needed
To hit 2030 targets across the GTHA
44% are from buildings
Buildings remain top source of emissions, followed by transportation.
The densely populated GTHA is the second-largest financial centre in North America and represents 42% of Ontario's total emissions.
8,244.42 km2 of contiguous urban land
7.7 million total population
The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) in Canada includes the city of Toronto, the city of Hamilton, and the regional municipalities of Halton, Peel, York, and Durham.
This 8,244 square kilometre urban region, home to 7.3 million people, is Canada's commercial, distribution, and financial core. Almost half of Ontario's emissions come from this region. TAF acknowledges these boundaries were created by settlers and do not reflect the Indigenous people who have occupied these lands for thousands of years or their respective traditional territories or treaties.
Regional Emissions at a Glance
Carbon Emissions across the GTHA
Includes the cities of Oshawa and Pickering, the towns of Whitby and Ajax, the Municipality of Clarington, and the Townships of Scugog, Uxbridge, and Brock.
Includes the City of Burlington and the towns of Oakville, Milton, and Halton Hills.
The City of Hamilton is the fifth largest city in Ontario and the tenth largest in Canada.
Includes the cities of Brampton and Mississauga and the Town of Caledon
With a population of almost 2.8 million, the City of Toronto is Canada’s largest city.
Includes the cities of Markham, Richmond Hill, and Vaughan, and the towns of Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, Newmarket, and Whitchurch-Stouffville, and the Township of King.
Sector Emissions at a Glance
Made up of onsite natural gas combustion and electricity consumption
Largely attributable to gasoline-powered private vehicles
Driven by cement and steel plants in the region
Dominated by the release of methane in landfills
Driven by continued use of nitrogen-based fertilizers